考研英语:阅读理解事实细节题高效突破法

2022-10-26来源:海文考研

 

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考研英语:阅读理解事实细节题高效突破法

阅读理解事实细节题高效突破法


事实细节题占据阅读考题的60%-70%,足见其地位的重要性。考研英语大纲要求考生在阅读理解中对文中的具体信息的理解,这些具体信息包括文中主旨句以外的具体的,用来支撑主题句的事实和细节,如某个具体的数据,文中一笔带过的事件,具体的事件、地点,某个观点的具体内容等等。事实细节题主要考查学生的寻读(scanning)、细读(close reading)能力以及句内、句间关系的把握能力。


事实细节题的命题规律


1. 命题处位于段落的展开部分;


2. 包含表示人名、地名、数字的段落常有考点;


3. 引导解释性内容的标点符号(如冒号、引号、破折号)处常考细节;


4. 表示重要语义关系的连接词或者从句中处常有考点。


事实细节题备选选项的特点


1. 关键词保留,原文句子基本结构不变,某些词语同义词替换;


2. 在不改变原意的基础上,变换句式;


3. 原文的句子是肯定形式,从正面叙述,而答案变成否定形式从反面叙述;


4. 换角度叙述同一件事情,事情本质内容不变;


5. 抽象概括原文的具体实例;


6. 选项对原文的概括描述进行具体例证。


事实细节题解题方法


1.抓住题干的关键词。迅速准确定位到原文,细读出题处并将原文与各选项进行比对,选项意思与原文最为接近的为正确答案,同义词替换一般是正确答案;


2.选项中含有绝对语气词的一般不是答案;


3.选项中符合一般常识,意义富有哲理,属于普遍现象的往往是正确答案。


事实细节题干扰项的特征


1.照抄原文的句子,与原文内容貌似,但要么太绝对化,包含绝对化词语,如all, only, always, never, anything, everywhere, everybody, nobody等;


2.一半信息符合原文,一半信息与原文不符,对细节进行过度推理;


3.将原文某些信息张冠李戴,与原文的逻辑关系颠倒;


4.出现原文没有的信息;


5.在转述中犯逻辑错误。


真题练习1


What makes this slump different from the last, he says, is that there are still buyers in the market, whereas in the early 1990s, when interest rates were high, there was no demand even though many collectors wanted to sell. Christie’s revenues in the first half of 2009 were still higher than in the first half of 2006. Almost everyone who was interviewed for this special report said that the biggest problem at the moment is not a lack of demand but a lack of good work to sell. The three Ds —death, debt and divorce —still deliver works of art to the market. But anyone who does not have to sell is keeping away, waiting for confidence to return.


(2010-Text 1)


The three Ds mentioned in the last paragraph are _________.


[A] auction houses’favorites


[B] contemporary trends


[C] factors promoting artwork circulation


[D] styles representing impressionists


真题练习2


Ruth Simmons joined Goldman Sachs’s board as an outside director in January 2000: a year later she became president of Brown University. For the rest of the decade she apparently managed both roles without attracting much criticism. But by the end of 2009 Ms. Simmons was under fire for having sat on Goldman’s compensation committee; how could she have let those enormous bonus payouts pass unremarked? By February the next year Ms. Simmons had left the board. The position was just taking up too much time, she said.


(2011-Text 1)


According to Paragraph 1, Ms. Simmons was criticized for _________.


[A] gaining excessive profits


[B] failing to fulfill her duty


[C] refusing to make compromises


[D] leaving the board in tough times


真题练习3


Outside directors are supposed to serve as helpful, yet less biased advisers on a firm’s board. Having made their wealth and their reputations elsewhere, they presumably have enough independence to disagree with the chief executive’s proposals. If the sky, and the share price is falling, outside directors should be able to give advice based on having weathered their own crises.


(2011-Text 1)


We learn from Paragraph 2 that outside directors are supposed to be?__________.


[A] generous investors


[B] unbiased executives


[C] share price forecasters


[D] independent advisers


真题练习4


At the same time, the policy addresses none of the truly thorny questions about homework. If the district finds homework to be unimportant to its students’academic achievement, it should move to reduce or eliminate the assignments, not make them count for almost nothing. Conversely, if homework matters, it should account for a significant portion of the grade. Meanwhile, this policy does nothing to ensure that the homework students receive is meaningful or appropriate to their age and the subject, or that teachers are not assigning more than they are willing to review and correct.


(2012-Text 1)


As mentioned in Paragraph 4, a key question unanswered about homework is whether ____________.


[A] it should be eliminated


[B] it counts much in schooling


[C] it places extra burdens on teachers


[D] it is important for grades


总之,针对阅读理解的事实细节题,务必要树立定位意识,通过仔细阅读题干,找准定位词。另外就是要牢记“主旨为王”原则,无论是何种题型,这一原则都适用,在排除两个选项之后,对于剩下的两个纠结的选项就选符合主旨的即可。掌握方法论,再通过真题演练,做到举一反三,相信阅读。


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